Are dating scans in pregnancy accurate dating daan local
Other tools used for assessment include: Induction is a method of artificially or prematurely stimulating labour in a woman.
Reasons to induce can include pre-eclampsia, foetal distress, placental malfunction, intrauterine growth retardation and failure to progress through labour increasing the risk of infection and foetal distresses.
Obstetrics prior to the 18th and 19th centuries was not recognized as a specific specialty. and early second century he studied anatomy and had opinions and techniques on abortion, contraception –most notably coitus interruptus– and birth complications.
However, the subject matter and interest in the female reproductive system and sexual practice can be traced back to Ancient Egypt Soranus of Ephesus sometimes is called the most important figure in ancient gynecology. After the death of Soranus, techniques and works of gynecology declined but very little of his works were recorded and survived to the late 18th century when gynaecology and obstetrics reemerged.
This title was later on lent to male-midwives all over Europe.
The founding of lying-hospitals also contributed to the medicalization and male-dominance of obstetrics.
Induction may be achieved via several methods: Postnatal care is care provided to the mother following parturition.
A woman in the Western world who is delivering in a hospital may leave the hospital as soon as she is medically stable and chooses to leave, which can be as early as a few hours postpartum, though the average for spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) is 1–2 days, and the average caesarean section postnatal stay is 3–4 days.
The safety of frequent ultrasound scanning has not be confirmed.Genetic screening for Down syndrome (trisomy 21) and trisomy 18, the national standard in the United States, is rapidly evolving away from the AFP-Quad screen for Down syndrome, done typically in the second trimester at 16–18 weeks. Ultrasound is also used for detecting congenital anomalies (or other foetal anomalies) and determining the biophysical profiles (BPP), which are generally easier to detect in the second trimester when the foetal structures are larger and more developed. The cost is higher than an "AFP-quad" screen due to the ultrasound and second blood test, but it is quoted to have a 93% pick up rate as opposed to 88% for the standard AFP/QS.By the end of the century, medical professionals began to understand the anatomy of the uterus and the physiological changes that take place during labour.The introduction of forceps in childbirth also took place during the 18th century.